Micronutrients (vitamins, minerals and trace elements) deficiencies have been associated with significant reproductive risks, including male and female infertility, miscarriage and fetal structural defects.
There is evidence that supplementation of micronutrients improved both female and male fertility, also during assisted reproduction (ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization). Micronutrient intake (supplements) and maternal dietary status increase the rate of pregnancy.
There is a growing body of evidence establishing the relationship between healthy sperm parameters, placental development, fetal growth, pregnancy outcomes and adequate nutrition, particularly vitamin intake. Antioxidants such as vitamins A, C and E and zinc are important in maintaining cellular oxidant–antioxidant balance which is disturbed due to modern life-style. The role of reactive oxygen species in reduction of fertility, in both men and women is well established.