Fertility Definitions

Fertility Definitions

Fertility Definitions

Asthenozoospermia – reduced sperm motility.

Body mass index (BMI) – a measure based on an individual weight (mass) and height. BMI is calculated according to the following formula, and the units are in kg/m2 or in pounds/in2.

BMI EquationorBMI Equation


World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification to underweight, normal weight and obese are:




Principal cut-off points

Additional cut-off points




     Severe thinness



     Moderate thinness

16.00 - 16.99

16.00 - 16.99

     Mild thinness

17.00 - 18.49

17.00 - 18.49

Normal range

18.50 - 24.99

18.50 - 22.99

23.00 - 24.99





25.00 - 29.99

25.00 - 27.49

27.50 - 29.99




          Obese class I

30.00 - 34.99

30.00 - 32.49

32.50 - 34.99

          Obese class II

35.00 - 39.99

35.00 - 37.49

37.50 - 39.99

          Obese class III





Fertility window – Did you know that you can get pregnant during 6 days of your menstrual cycle?  These include the day of ovulation and 5 days prior to that, since a sperm is able to fertilize an egg for 5 days after intercourse.  

Hyperhomocysteinemia - abnormally high level of homocysteine in the blood, conventionally described as above 15 µmol/L. Hyperhomocysteinemia occurs due to deficiencies of vitamin B6, folic acid (vitamin B9), and vitamin B12, and can be treated by supplementation of these vitamins.

Idiopathic Male Infertility – Abnormal semen parameters (reduced sperm count, changes in sperm characteristics), without a clear medical finding. Most probably is due to lifestyle choices, such as diet, smoking and alcohol consumption.

Kallmann’s syndrome – Kallmann’s syndrome is a condition characterized by delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell. It is caused by reduced production of sex hormones produced by sex organs, the testes in males. There are 4 types of Kallmann’s syndrome, attributed to four different genetic causes.

Klinefelter’s syndrome - This is a chromosomal condition that affects male physical and cognitive development; People with this syndrome typically have small testes that do not produce enough testosterone. In Klinefelter, instead of having one each X and Y chromosomes, individuals have an extra X chromosome.

Menstrual cycle – the time between periods (menstruation) in which your ovaries and uterus are preparing for fertilization. the length of a menstrual cycle varies greatly among women (ranging from 21 to 35 days), with 28 days designated as the average length. By convention, the length of an individual menstrual cycle in days is counted starting with the first day of menstrual bleeding.

Oligozoospermia - reduced sperm count.

Varicocele - abnormal enlargement of veins in the scrotum (the loose bag of skin that holds your testicles). Varicoceles are a common cause of low sperm production and decreased sperm quality, which can cause infertility. Varicocele do not always cause reduced sperm production, but if they do, it may be repaired by surgery.

Luteal Phase - The luteal phase is one stage of the menstrual cycle. It occurs after ovulation (when the ovaries release an egg) and before your period starts. During this phase, the lining of your uterus normally becomes thicker to prepare for a possible pregnancy.

Laparoscopy - a surgical procedure in which a fiber-optic instrument is inserted through the abdominal wall to view the organs in the abdomen or to permit a surgical procedure.

Gestational age or week - The common term used during pregnancy to describe how far along the pregnancy is. It is measured in weeks, from the first day of the woman's last menstrual cycle to the current date. A normal pregnancy can range from 38 to 42 weeks.

Thyroid gland - is found in the neck. It is responsible for producing hormones which control metabolism. Most thyroid problems involve abnormal production, higher or lower, of thyroid hormones, which changes our body metabolism.

Thrombosis - The formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood.

Seminiferous tubules - sites in the testes in which sperm is produced.

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