A decrease in male fertility has been occurred over the years. Sperm density had fallen by 40% over the past 50 years. There are both known and unknown causes of male infertility. Known causes include varicocele (abnormal enlargement of veins in the scrotum), urogenital infections, immunologic factors (antisperm antibodies), sexual/ejaculatory inadequacy, congenital disorders (Kallmann’s and Klinefelter’s syndrome, etc.), acquired urogenital abnormalities, and endocrine disorders.
Known causes of male infertility tend to have targeted and effective treatment options. Unknown or idiopathic causes account for approximately 30-50% of all the cases of male infertility. In idiopathic infertility there are unexplained changes in sperm parameters, including low sperm concentration (≤15 million per milliliter), reduced sperm motility (≤40%), and abnormal sperm morphology (≤4% normal forms). Idiopathic cases of infertility are mostly associated with life-style (diet, alcohol consumption, weight) and age.