Male infertility can be caused by abnormal enlargement of veins in the scrotum (varicocele), urogenital infections, the presence of anti-sperm antibodies, sexual/ejaculatory inadequacy, congenital disorders such as Kallmann’s syndrome or Klinefelter’s syndrome, acquired urogenital abnormalities, and endocrine disorders. In varicocele, removal of veins by surgery is recommended for large veins. However, treatment doesn’t always result in improved fertility.
Congenital disorders, sexual/ejaculatory dysfunction and urogenital abnormalities are mostly treated by counseling and sperm harvesting, followed by in vitro fertilization. Once the exact culprit for an endocrine disorder is identified, hormone replacement therapy is initiated. Treatment can last for 6 months to 3 years, depending on the nature and severity of the disorder.