Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of regular, unprotected intercourse. A couple’s inability to conceive their first child is called primary infertility, while difficulty conceiving for 5 years after having your first child is called secondary infertility. In every monthly cycle, there is a 25% chance for a pregnancy, so doctors advise couples to wait one year before seeking medical treatment.
Infertility is a global problem, with 15% of the world’s population experiencing an inability to conceive. In 2010, an estimated 48.5 million couples worldwide were unable to have a child after 5 years of trying. It is estimated that 40% of infertility cases result from problems in the female’s reproductive system, 40% of infertility cases result from issues with the male’s reproductive system, and the remaining 20% result from a combination of female and male factors or from undetermined causes. In 2010, about 2% of women aged 20–44 years who wanted to have children were unable to have their first live birth, and 10.5% of women with a previous child were unable to have an additional child. Research supports that for both men and women, as age increases fertility typically decreases.